Proton Neutron

Solution to the Proton Spin Puzzle

As shown below the proton spin puzzle is just an important proof of quark compositeness.

The proton spin puzzle started with the paper by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) [Phys. Lett. B Vol. 206(2), 1988] which found for the proton spin the result  (1±12±24)% of the total spin.

The solution is, actually, very simple and is directly linked to quark compositeness. As shown in the papers The Higgs boson and quark compositeness (published in Moriond 2014 proceedings) and The Higgs-like Boson and Quark Compositenessand also in the presentation at Moriond 2014, the proton has two layers of primons (prequarks) whose spin components in the Z direction are ± 1/4, although they are fermions of spin 1/2. Thus, each layer of 3  primons in the proton has a total spin of +1/4 in the +Z direction. Therefore, the two layers yield +1/4 + (+1/4) = +1/2, but deep inelastic experiments (that is, very short Compton wavelength) probe only the inner layer that yields only + 1/4 which agrees with the above result by EMC.

As shown in the paper The Ultimate Division of Matter, since primons are 1/2 spin fermions, there is an intrinsic spin asymmetry in the proton (and also in the neutron) because as <Sx>^2 + <Sy>^2 + <Sz>^2 = 1/2(1/2+1) and <Sx>^2 = <Sy>^2, <Sz>^2=1/16=0.063. And 1/16 is just 25% of (1/2)^2=0.25. This intrinsic asymmetry should be  very import for experiments with polarized proton beams, such as the RHIC’ s spin  experiment.

The proton structure shown in the papers above mentioned was found out a long time ago at SLAC by the great physicist Robert Hofstadter (Nobel Prize of 1961 with R. L. Mössbauer). For details take a look at the post

in this web page.


In RHIC experiments polarized protons beams hit each other, so that it is expected the results to be completely  different from DIS results. Over all effects are measured in this case, but I really do not know anything about this experiment. I hope that RHIC scientists  will take a look at their results considering my model for the proton. I am sure that their understanding will be improved.

Please, take also a look at the post BIASED NUCLEON STRUCTURE.

The Higgs Boson and Quark Compositeness

I am recreating this post that was erased somehow, I do not know how.

Considering that each quark is composed of two prequarks, called primons, it is shown that the recently found neutral Higgs-like boson belongs to a triplet constituted of a neutral boson and two charged bosons and , and that is, actually, a triplet and both and are doublets. The quantum numbers of these bosons are calculated and shown to be associated to a new kind of hypercharge which is directly related to the weak decays of hadrons and to the CKM matrix elements. Solutions to the proton spin puzzle and to other problems of particle physics are presented. 

This above text is the abstract of the paper The Higgs-like Bosons and Quark Compositeness.


Another paper on the same subject, but with further developments, was presented at Moriond 2104. The paper is called The Higgs boson and quark compositeness. You cann also take a look at its presentation.

Quark Compositeness and the Proton Radius Puzzle

The proton radius puzzle comes about from the discrepancy between measurements for the proton radius using electrons and using muons. The current CODATA data for only electronic spectroscopy data is 0.8758(77) fm . Including electron scattering results, CODATA finds the overall result of 0.8775(51) fm. The first results of muonic hydrogen (Collaboration of Randolf Pohl et al.) […]

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Neutrino Oscillations Hint at a New Fundamental Interaction

In a publication from 2012 the Daya Bay Collaboration reported a  disappearance of about 6% of electron antineutrinos along a distance of 1648 m and claimed that this disapearance was caused by neutrino oscillations. But in a paper that has just been published this collaboration corrects the old result because now it has found that the […]

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The article Plot of the week – quark compositeness is nowhere near posted in Tommaso Dorigo’s blog is wrong. After reading this post, please take a look at the post BIASED NUCLEON STRUCTURE. As I explain in the paper The Higgs Boson and Quark Compositeness (presented at Moriond 2014), and in its presentation, and in the paper Weak decays […]

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The Higgs Parity has not really been determined yet.

At Moriond 2014, on March 23, there was the presentation by Nicola De Filippis on behalf of ATLAS and CMS collaborations: Measurements of the Higgs properties at LHC. Part of the presentation was on the Higgs parity which had been determined to be even. At the end of his talk there was a hot discussion on the […]

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All Higgs decays linked to a new quantum number


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  In almost all books of Introduction to Particle Physics one finds this picture of the proton structure function F2 in terms of x for  q squared around 1 GeV squared. The authors state that this picture proves that there are 3 valence quarks in the proton, but this is completely false because the mass […]

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Towards a solution for the weak radiative hyperon decays puzzle

The weak radiative hyperon decays problem is a long standing puzzle of about 50 years. It has its origin in the results of experiment [1] which showed a large asymmetry in the decay  Sigma+  >  p gamma, violating, thus, Hara’s theorem [2] which, at the hadron level, states that the parity-violating amplitude of the above […]

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Charmonium with an effective Morse molecular potential

At BEACH 2014 I presented the paper Charmonium with an effective Morse molecular potential which has recently  been published in the proceedings. In this paper I propose a completely new approach to charmonium spectroscopy. This approach allows the calculation of the parameters of the molecular potential, calculation of the radii of 5 S states, and information […]

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