Proton Neutron

The Multi-Bang Universe: The Never-Ending Realm of Galaxies

In this article a new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleons vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion  years. The evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated with Quasar PDS 456 data and the true nature of the concentrated mass at its center is revealed. It is not a Black Hole but the mass is of the same order of the supposed Black Hole. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost. The paper has been published on March 15, 2007 by Frontiers in Science. Here is the link for accessing the paper.


In this very important paper I show that the baryonic matter density in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. Where is the trick? It is just the consideration that the expansion of the Universe is not homogeneous at all and happens by means of voids as has been proven by observations since the pioneering work of de Lapparent, Geller and Huchra whose abstract is:

“A preliminary discussion is presented of recent results obtained as part of the extension of the Center of Astrophysics redshift survey. Several features of the results are striking. The distribution of galaxies in the sample, which contains 1100 galaxies in a 6 deg x 117 deg strip going through the Coma cluster, looks like a slice through the suds in the kitchen sink. It appears that the galaxies are on the surfaces of bubble-like structures with diameters of 25-50/h-Mpc. The largest bubble in the survey has a diameter comparable with the most recent estimates of the diameter of the void in Bootes. This topology poses serious challenges for current models for the formation of large-scale structure. The best available model for generating these structures is the explosive galaxy formation theory of Ostriker and Cowie (1981)”.

I carry on in the paper the obvious kind of calculation: expansion of matter by means of a spherical shell of galaxies. The paper has been accepted with minor changes. Here is its link Dark matter does not exist at all .