Proton Neutron


In this article I develop a simple calculation using Newtonian Dynamics for the motion of a galaxy close to a galactic sheet and show that the so-called accelerated universal expansion is false because the galaxy is trapped in a local potential well and is subject to a Hooke’s law force. Thus, although the galaxy’s velocity INCREASES, the magnitude of its acceleration DECREASES. Therefore, dark energy makes no sense at all.

For the first time we grasp the order of magnitude of the duration of the universal expansion: of the order of  1 trillion years!!!!!!!!!!!! We can easily see that this number is OK by carrying on the very rough calculation below. Voids have average radii of 30 Mpc and the peculiar velocities of galaxies in voids is of the order of 300 km/s. Therefore a galaxy at the center of a void would take a time t of the order of

t = 30Mpc/300000 s = 10^18 s = 0.3 trillion years

to reach the void wall.

I also suggest that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. The paper has been submitted to Frontiers in Science. Here is its temporary link.

The Multi-Bang Universe: The Never-Ending Realm of Galaxies

In this article a new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleons vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion  years. The evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated with Quasar PDS 456 data and the true nature of the concentrated mass at its center is revealed. It is not a Black Hole but the mass is of the same order of the supposed Black Hole. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost. The paper has been published on March 15, 2007 by Frontiers in Science. Here is the link for accessing the paper.