Proton Neutron


The figure below from a DO Collaboration paper has been used as a proof for the non-existence of quark compositeness. But when we read the DO paper we clearly see that it refers to a very high compositeness scale in the TeV range (Take a look at the first three references of the DO paper), but as we see in the posts in this web page  BIASED NUCLEON STRUCTURE and The article PLOT OF THE WEEK – QUARK COMPOSITENESS IS NOWHERE NEAR is wrong the true compositeness scale is just 1 GeV and quark compositeness has not already been established because there is a complete entanglement between primons (prequarks) and valence quarks, and between valence and constituent quarks, besides the fact that primons should be very light. What the quark compositeness searches in the TeV range yield is, actually, that primons (prequarks) are not composite. Therefore, the quark compositeness searches in the TeV range are completely misleading.

It is worth recalling that electrical charges do not appear in Bjorken scaling structure functions. And also we should have in mind that at high q square the de Broglie wavelength h/q is very small and, thus, we probe the 3 inner prequarks in the nucleon and identify them as being 3 valence quarks due to the lack of identification of their electrical charges.

D0 figure


The DO paper above mentioned: DO Collaboration, First Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions in the TeV Regime nd Searches for Quark compositeness and Extra Dimensions, DO Note 5333-CONF.

The first three references of the above paper are:

[1] E. Eichten, I. Hinchliffe, K. D. Lane and C. Quigg, “Super Collider Physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 56, 579 (1984) [Addendumibid. 58, 1065 (1986)].

[2] P. Chiappetta and M. Perrottet, “Possible bounds on compositeness from inclusive one jet production in large hadron colliders,” Phys. Lett. B 253, 489 (1991).

[3] K. D. Lane, “Electroweak and flavor dynamics at hadron colliders,” arXiv:hep-ph/9605257.



This also means that other experiments on quark compositeness carried out in the TeV region produce null results, of course. A good account of this can be found in this ATLAS Report.

The Multi-Bang Universe: The Never-Ending Realm of Galaxies

In this article a new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleons vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion  years. The evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated with Quasar PDS 456 data and the true nature of the concentrated mass at its center is revealed. It is not a Black Hole but the mass is of the same order of the supposed Black Hole. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost. The paper has been published on March 15, 2007 by Frontiers in Science. Here is the link for accessing the paper.


I was alerted by an important Particle Physics physicist on Robert Hofstadter results about the nucleon structure cited by me by means of the reference Rev. Modern Phys. Vol. 28, 214, 1956. He sent me the very important reference by R. Hofstadter, F. Bumiller and M. R. Yearian, Electromagnetic Structure of the Proton and Neutron (Rev. […]

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Solution to the Proton Spin Puzzle

As shown below the proton spin puzzle is just an important proof of quark compositeness. The proton spin puzzle started with the paper by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) [Phys. Lett. B Vol. 206(2), 1988] which found for the proton spin the result  (1±12±24)% of the total spin. The solution is, actually, very simple and is […]

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