Proton Neutron


In this article I develop a simple calculation using Newtonian Dynamics for the motion of a galaxy close to a galactic sheet and show that the so-called accelerated universal expansion is false because the galaxy is trapped in a local potential well and is subject to a Hooke’s law force. Thus, although the galaxy’s velocity INCREASES, the magnitude of its acceleration DECREASES. Therefore, dark energy makes no sense at all.

For the first time we grasp the order of magnitude of the duration of the universal expansion: of the order of  1 trillion years!!!!!!!!!!!! We can easily see that this number is OK by carrying on the very rough calculation below. Voids have average radii of 30 Mpc and the peculiar velocities of galaxies in voids is of the order of 300 km/s. Therefore a galaxy at the center of the void would take a time t of the order of

t = 30Mpc/300000 s = 10^18 s to reach the void wall.

I also suggest that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. The paper has been submitted to Frontiers in Science. Here is its temporary link.