The SM Higgs boson does not exist simply because quarks are composite. Somebody may say now ‘come on, we haven’t seen it’, and the truth is that we have seen several indications of it. The first one was found in 1956 by Hofstadter when he determined the electric charge distributions in both nucleons. One can see them around p. 450 (depending on the edition) of the Berkeley Physics Course, vol. 1 (Mechanics) or in Reviews of Modern Physics, vol 28, 214 (1956). We clearly see that both nucleons have two layers (shells) of internal constituents. Unfortunately these results were put aside from 1964 on due to the great success of the quark model and of QCD later on. From 1983 on we began to see more indications of compositeness, but we were so enthusiastic with the Standard Model that we did not pay much attention to them. A partial list of them: 1) in 1983 the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) at CERN found that the quarks of nucleons are slower when the nucleons are inside nuclei; 2) in 1988 the SLAC E143 Collaboration and the Spin Muon Collaboration found that the three quarks of the proton account for only half of its total spin (other subsequent collaborations (EMC in 1989 and Hermes in 2007) have confirmed this result which is called THE PROTON SPIN PUZZLE); 3) in 1995 CDF at Fermilab found hard collisions among quarks indicating that they have constituents (this was not published because CDF did not reach a final consensus, but the news leaked and newspapers announced the findings such as did the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo); 4) Prof. Gerald Miller at Argonne (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 112001 (2007)) found that close to its center the neutron has a negative charge equal to -1/3e (inside the positive region with +1/2e); 5) new measurements of the EMC effect have been carried out by J. Arrington et al. at Jefferson Lab and they have shown that the effect is much stronger than was previously observed; 6) the ad hoc Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements; 7) the null charge dipole moment of the deuteron and its non-null charge quadrupole moment etc.
Gerald Miller wrongly attributed to d quarks the -1/3e charge at the neutron center, but as the neutron is a udd system we know (from QCD) that none of the 3 quarks spends much time at the center.
It is worth noting that 3 pointlike quarks do not reproduce Hofstadter results, period. Try it yourself.
The relevant papers on this subject are Weak decays of hadrons reveal compositeness of quarks and The Higgs-like Bosons and Quark Compositeness and The Higgs boson and quark compositeness (presented at Moriond 2014) which can be accessed from Google (they are at the top of the lists on the subjects Weak decays of hadrons, Decays of Hadrons, Weak decays, and Compositeness of quarks). I think that my presentation at Moriond clearly shows that quarks are composite. Please, click right here to see it.
Therefore, we should go back and probe further the nucleons in the low energy scale, in the range 1-10 GeV, to find out more details on their structures.
The weak decays of the newly found hadrons at the LHC will follow, for sure, the same pattern of the presently known hadrons, as shown in the paper Weak decays of hadrons reveal compositeness of quarks and this fact will constitute an indirect proof of quark compositeness.
The SM Higgs boson does not exist simply because quarks are composite. Somebody may say now ‘come on, we haven’t seen it’, and the truth is that we have seen several indications of it. The first one was found in 1956 by Hofstadter when he determined the electric charge distributions in both nucleons. One can […]