In this article I develop a simple calculation using Newtonian Dynamics for the motion of a galaxy close to a galactic sheet and show that the so-called accelerated universal expansion is false because the galaxy is trapped in a local potential well and is subject to a Hooke’s law force. Thus, although the galaxy’s velocity INCREASES, the magnitude of its acceleration DECREASES. Therefore, dark energy makes no sense at all.
For the first time we grasp the order of magnitude of the duration of the universal expansion: of the order of 1 trillion years!!!!!!!!!!!! We can easily see that this number is OK by carrying on the very rough calculation below. Voids have average radii of 30 Mpc and the peculiar velocities of galaxies in voids is of the order of 300 km/s. Therefore a galaxy at the center of the void would take a time t of the order of
t = 30Mpc/300000 s = 10^18 s to reach the void wall.
I also suggest that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. The paper has been submitted to Frontiers in Science. Here is its temporary link.
On July 6, 2017, at the EPS Conference on High Energy Physics in Venice, the LHCb has reported the observation of Ξcc++(Xicc++) which is a new particle containing two charm quarks and one up quark. Although the existence of this baryon had been predicted by the Quark Model, physicists have been looking for this baryon for many years. Its mass has been reported to be about 3621 MeV (here is the link for the LHCb report).
It is important to have in mind that in the paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons I had predicted for this baryon a mass of 3710 MeV which means an error of only 2.4%. Please, take a look at this paper with its erratum (click here for the erratum).
It is also important to mention that on January 5, 2013, the CDF Collaboration reported the “Evidence for the bottom baryon resonance state Λb*0 with the CDF II detector”, arXiv:hep-ex 1301.0949. According to CDF its mass is about 5.92 GeV. This level of Λb0 had been predicted in the above paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons with a mass of 5.93 GeV, just 0.17% off.
In the old version of the above paper (from 2002), Calculation of the energy levels and sizes of baryons with a noncentral harmonic potential, (https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0209064) I predicted that Ξc would have levels with masses 2.82 GeV, 3.01 GeV and 3.13 GeV (on page 8 of the paper) and since then the following levels have been found 2.79 GeV and 2.815 GeV; 2.93 GeV, 2.98 GeV and 3.055 GeV; 3.08 GeV and 3.123 GeV. Of course, the new version of the paper took these levels into account.
Therefore, the above paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons can help experimentalists from LHCb to find new levels of baryons.
Summary of the predicted baryon levels with their measured and predicted masses.
|Baryon Level||Measured Mass(Gev/c2)||Predicted Mass(GeV/c2)||Error in %|
In the above table I labeled the Ξc levels according to Table 7 from the above mentioned paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons.
A paper, related to this above paper, is the paper The Radii of Baryons which calculates the radii of allmost all baryon levels. One of the predicted radii was already confirmed. For viewing the paper, please click here.
While refereing a paper today, September 03, 2017, I realized that I forgot to include in the above list the discovery of the Xib- and Xib0 baryons reported by LHCb on January, 3, 2015 with masses 5.7949 GeV/c^2 and 5.7931 GeV/c^2. In the above paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons I had predicted for them the mass 5.81 GeV/c^2, just 0.9% off.
The correctness of the paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons is quite in line with other works in this web page on quark compositeness and mean that constituent quarks are the true quarks and are massive particles, and thus, valence quarks (which are almost massless) are not quarks, and are, actually, prequarks called primons by me.
It is also worth taking into account that the MIT-Bag Model, which has some success, would be completely meaningless if quarks were point-like, that is, if a baryon were a system of three point-like particles. The MIT-Bag Model takes into account the overall effect of the interactions of the six prequarks arranged in three quarks and forming two layers of prequarks. That is why in the Bag Model one considers boundary conditions at a surface and outward pressure. Please, take a look at the post The article PLOT OF THE WEEK – QUARK COMPOSITENESS IS NOWHERE NEAR is wrong in this web page.
MORE CONFIRMATIONS OF THE MASS FORMULA FOR BARYONS
I had forgotten to mention that in March LHCb published the paper Observation of five new narrow Ω0c states decaying to Ξ+cK− (Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 182001 (2017); arXiv:1703.04639 [hep-ex]) with masses 3000 MeV, 3050 MeV, 3066 MeV, 3090 MeV and 3119 MeV. In the above paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons ,(Table 8) I had predicted a level with mass of 3200 MeV which, as found by LHCb is splitted in 5 levels. The errors for the 5 levels above are just 6.25%, 4.69%, 4.19%, 3,44% and 2.53%, respectively.
PLEASE, ALL INTERESTED PEOPLE SHOULD PAY ATTENTION AND IDENTIFY THE TRUE AUTHOR OF THE PAPER BECAUSE THE ABOVE PAPER HAS BEEN SHAMEFULLY PLAGIARIZED!!!!!!!
Here are the details of the plagiarism.
The above paper Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons was published in 2011 by the scientific journal Papers in Physics. Here is the link to the paper link http://www.
papersinphysics.org/index.php/ papersinphysics/article/view/ 64
The paper was completely plagiarized by Dr. Trivedi Sharma who published the same paper in 2014 in the Indian Research Journal with the same title. Of course, he copied the paper. Here is its link
I think that he is not only crazy, he is dishonest, a crook.
A new study by G. Rácz, L. Dobos, R. Beck, I. Szapudi, and I. Csabai (also in arXiv version arXiv:1607.08797) confirms what I have said in the paper The Multi-Bang Universe: The Never-Ending Realm of Galaxies: DARK ENERGY DOES NOT EXIST! I think that their work is not incompatible with my paper The Multi-Bang Universe: The Never-Ending Realm of Galaxies and, actually, […]
The figure below from a DO Collaboration paper has been used as a proof for the non-existence of quark compositeness. But when we read the DO paper we clearly see that it refers to a very high compositeness scale in the TeV range (Take a look at the first three references of the DO paper), […]
In this article a new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle may have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid […]
In this very important paper I show that the baryonic matter density in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. Where is the trick? It is just the consideration that the expansion of the Universe is not homogeneous at all and happens by means of voids as has been proven by observations since the pioneering […]
In a recently published article J. T. Nielsen, A. Guffanti & S. Sarkar have reported only Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae. This bold faced phrase is the title of the paper which was based on data from 740 supernovas. I reproduce below the paper’s abstract. The ‘standard’ model of cosmology is founded on the […]
I was alerted by an important Particle Physics physicist on Robert Hofstadter results about the nucleon structure cited by me by means of the reference Rev. Modern Phys. Vol. 28, 214, 1956. He sent me the very important reference by R. Hofstadter, F. Bumiller and M. R. Yearian, Electromagnetic Structure of the Proton and Neutron (Rev. […]
(Chart from the paper The Higgs boson and quark compositeness published in Moriond 2014 proceedings) Taking into consideration the above chart for quark transitions in terms of Higgs-like bosons due to selection rules dictated by the quantum number ∑3 , the neutral Higgs-like bosons H0 (+1) and H0 (-1) can be found, for […]
As shown in the papers The Higgs-like Bosons and Quark Compositeness and The Higgs boson and quark compositeness the Higgs-like bosons quantum numbers are given by the table Boson ∑3 H0 0 ±1 H+, H– ±1 ±2 As it is clear from the calculation in the paper The Higgs-like Bosons and Quark Compositeness, H0+1 and […]